A dialysis patient is tough to treat, because apart from removing toxins, excess fluid volume, and accumulated salt by dialysis, hormones and vitamins need to be supplemented and up to 20 drugs are prescribed to such a patient. Needless to say that additional diseases such as diabetes and congestive heart failure are aggravating the conditions. Keeping the medication and the dialysis treatments in balance is a daily challenge for nephrologists.

The two most prevalent therapies. Both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are equal therapies. Each one requires medical devices, software, and drugs (such as heparin).

Peritoneal dialysis utilizes the peritoneum, a natural membrane around the inner organs as a semi-permeable membrane to continuously remove toxins and excess fluid volume from the blood. The therapy is performed by the patient or a caregiver at home on daily basis.

The peritoneal cavity is filled with a dialysate liquid and left in the belly for several hours. During the so-called dwelling time, the dialysate liquid withdraws toxins and excess water from the patient. Afterwards, the dialysate liquid with the accumulated toxins is drained and the cavity is filled again with new liquid.